Our approach to the study of hard tissues from mammals (e.g. bone and teeth) and from other animals (e.g. shells and exoskeletons of crustaceans) is largely based on physical-chemistry characterization techniques. Among these techniques, Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM), diffraction techniques and, more recently, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) have been offering answers to fundamental questions about the nature, origin and function of these biological materials. Our current focus is on mineralised tissues from reptiles.


For the most up-to-date list go here.


  • Iacoviello, F., Kirby, A., Javanmardi, Y., Moeendarbary, E., Shabanli, M., Tsolaki, E., . . . Bertazzo, S. (2020). The multiscale hierarchical structure of Heloderma suspectum osteoderms and their mechanical properties. Acta Biomaterialia. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2020.02.029

  • Kirby, A., Vickaryous, M., Boyde, A., Olivo, A., Moazen, M., Bertazzo, S., & Evans, S. (2020). A comparative histological study of the osteoderms in the lizards Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae) and Varanus komodoensis (Squamata: Varanidae). J Anat. doi:10.1111/joa.13156



  • Bertazzo, S. (2015). BiomineralizationSeminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 46, 1.

  • Bazin, D., Jouanneau, C., Bertazzo, S., Sandt, C., Dessombz, A., Réfrégiers, M., . . . Daudon, M. (2015). Combining field effect scanning electron microscopy, deep UV fluorescence, Raman, classical and synchrotron radiation Fourier transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy in the study of crystal-containing kidney biopsies. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 19 (11-12), 1439-1450.






























  • Morphological characterization of Bertazzo, S., Bertran, C. A., & Camilli, J. A. (2006).  and parietal bone mineral of rats at different ages. Key Engineering Materials, 309-311 I, 11-14.femur